nuclear-reUsing commercial satellite imagery from March 2013 and December 2013, IPFM says the Khushab III reactor now appears operational due to water vapour rising from its cooling towers, but the Khushab IV reactor is still under construction.

Pakistan’s third plutonium-producing reactor is in service at its Khushab nuclear site and is likely to have already produced fuel, claimed a foreign magazine, quoting the International Panel on Fissile Materials (IPFM).

According to reports, the IPFM, “an independent group of arms-control and non-proliferation experts from both nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states”, has highlighted the latest developments in Pakistan’s plutonium programme in a blog entry.

Using commercial satellite imagery from March 2013 and December 2013, it says the Khushab III reactor now appears operational due to water vapour rising from its cooling towers, but the Khushab IV reactor is still under construction.

It goes on to say, “If Khushab-III began operating in early 2013, the first batch of its spent fuel could have been taken out already, cooled and become available to be reprocessed in 2014 or possibly 2015.”

It bases its assessments on the three operating reactors having a power of 40-50 megawatts, which, operating at 50 percent capacity, could each produce 5.7 to 7.1 kilogrammess of weapon grade plutonium per year. At 80 percent capacity they could each produce 9 to 11.5 kilogrammes of plutonium.

Based on these calculations, IPFM estimates Pakistan has accumulated about 170 kilogrammes of plutonium from the Khushab-I and Khushab-II reactors. It claims this would suffice for approximately 35-40 warheads of four to five kilogrammes of plutonium per warhead.

Royal United Services Institute Analyst Shashank Joshi said he was wary of analysing the figures of production capabilities based on satellite images.


Quaid-e-Azam University Department of Defence and Strategic Studies official Mansoor Ahmed, who specialises in Pakistan’s national deterrent and delivery programs, said this fits into a long pattern of reporting that shows Pakistan has a fast-growing arsenal but one he believes still pales in comparison to India’s.

He highlights a number of reports, including from the IPFM itself, that show India “is expanding and adding several un-safeguarded facilities in its military nuclear fuel cycle suitable for producing fissile material,” and has the world’s fastest growing nuclear program.

“These include the rare materials plant centrifuge facility, a second plutonium production reactor and one 500 megawatt electricity experimental fast breeder reactor. In addition, four reprocessing plants of 350 tonnes of heavy metal per year (thm) are in operation, an industrial-scale 500 thm/year reprocessing plant and another large industrial scale centrifuge enrichment plant are in the pipeline along with four additional fast breeder reactors,” he said.

“As of the end of 2013, India’s fissile material stockpiles include 800-1,000 kilogrammes of weapon-grade plutonium from CIRUS and Dhruva-1 production reactors, two tonnes of highly enriched uranium [HEU] from RMP; and 15 tonnes of weapon-usable reactor-grade plutonium from its pressurised heavy water reactors [PHWRs],” said Ahmed.

He says the significance of these cannot be underestimated.

“These stocks are outside (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards and are sufficient for producing about 250 warheads from weapon-grade plutonium; 40 warheads from HEU and 1,875 warheads from reactor-grade plutonium, which was used in one of India’s 1998 nuclear tests,” he said.

Additional capabilities will be added within the next three to five years, he said, that could produce another 171 kilogrammes of weapon-grade plutonium.

“These figures would add up with existing capacities and would allow India to produce about 100 warheads from weapon-grade plutonium and HEU each year in addition to 50 warheads from one PHWR run on low-burn up,” he said.

“Even if a fraction of the other seven PHWRs are used to produce fuel for India’s fast breeder reactors as claimed, these can still add another 137 weapons worth of fissile material each year,” he said.

“Compared to this, Pakistan’s total existing and expected annual fissile material production capacity from four Khushab plutonium production reactors is not more than 46 kilogrammes of weapon-grade plutonium and 100-125 kilogrammes of weapon-grade HEU, only sufficient for 17 warheads annually.”

Former air commodore and analyst, Kaiser Tufail believes Pakistan is reasonably secure.

“Pakistan’s nuclear triad exploits certain peculiar advantages of each delivery system,” he said.

“Ground-based mobile missile systems allow dispersion, reducing the success probability of an enemy’s first strike. Submarine-launched missile systems allow a high degree of survivability and can be credibly used for a second strike.”

He also said that the aircraft delivery method has flexibility beyond that of other systems.